Electrostatic electrostatics has been around for many years. It is not a new technology, but it is becoming increasingly used by companies as a more modern way to protect their products and provide other advantages as well. These advantages are primarily based on the fact that electrostatic technology makes it possible for electricity to flow through conductors without passing through any other matter which would slow or alter the current. With no turbulence, static electricity does not create an electric shock which could harm anyone, and it does not cause any damage to electronic or physical items in the vicinity of the conductor.
While this was once considered to be a very simple concept, it is important to understand what this means for those who are considering investing in electrostatic equipment. First, it is important to understand the relationship between resistivity and conductivity. Resistivity refers to the amount of electrical resistance that is experienced when electricity passes through a material. In ideal situations conductivity will have nearly zero correlation with resistivity. However, in many situations poor conductivity levels will reduce the efficiency of many systems and even create a short circuit or fire.
There are two primary types of electrostatic equipment: electrostatic disinfection and electrostatic filtering. Disinfection uses chemicals to kill microorganisms and also cleans conductors. Filtering uses materials to filter out particles such as dust and debris. Electrostatic filtering can be combined with other methods such as electrostatic disinfection to effectively clean larger areas. The two systems can often be used together to ensure that large areas are adequately cleaned.
There are two primary methods used in electrostatic equipment applications, electrostatic discharging and electrostatic spraying. Discharge systems involve an external contactor which is applied to the surface to be cleaned. A discharge path is then installed beneath the contactor. When charged, the path produces a spray of particles which are then released from the contactor and onto the targeted surface.
While effective in many situations, there are some limitations to electrostatic equipment. Electrostatic brushing and the cage effect are two factors that reduce transfer efficiency. These issues occur because the particles released have low energy per unit volume. Because of this, the treated surfaces will quickly become saturated with particles and lose their pliability.
The cage effect is due to the passage of time and can only be completely resolved by an electric field that is strongly induced by applied voltage. The electrostatic spray is often designed to induce a low voltage electrical field that changes the mechanical energy of charged particles to that of a higher value. This change in mechanical energy changes the chemical reaction from one state to another, and the new state is an electron. This process is called electrolysis. Electrolysis of metals and other non-metal surfaces can be conducted on a wide range of materials, using both direct and indirect currents.
Another limitation of electrostatic systems is that they are often not quite effective, and may not even produce any worthwhile results. This is because many times the effects produced are not very large in size. For instance, the electrostatic discharge used to transfer heat from a metallic surface can quickly warm the metal, making the transfer inefficient. The use of conventional spray guns does not always work well either, because the surface area can easily be contaminated by airborne particles released by the spray guns.
There are some alternatives to electrostatic systems in electro-plating and electro-galvanizing applications. One of these alternatives is to use a cold-press method instead of a conventional hot-press system. The cold-press system reduces the amount of charge introduced to the plater, thus improving transfer efficiency in some instances. Other methods include gas-phase switching and super-pumping. These techniques improve not only charge transfer efficiency, but also reduce heat buildup.